Quinabaug Historical Society
Read by George W. Wells at
Meeting of Society, November 29, 1909
Lower Spec Shop
A shop was built by the Central Mills Company in 1865 on the north side of Main Street, and east side of Cohasse Brook. On June 30, 1866, the building was leased to E. Edmonds & Son, who made steel spectacles here, and to Theodore Harrington for the manufacture of shoe knives. December 26, 1868, the tract of land, shop, water privilege, the right to the pen stock leading from the canal from the pond below the Central Mills Co., an opening equivalent to 75 square inches, and also a small house and lot adjoining, were sold to Henry C. Ammidown. After changes in partnership, the firm making spectacles was known as H. C. Ammidown & Co., composed of H. C. Ammidown and Charles S. Edmonds; for a short time in 1869, George W. Wells, Hiram C. Wells and C. S. Edmonds were its members under the name of H. C. Ammidown & Co.
The real estate and water privilege became the property of the American Optical Company May 14, 1869.
On May 10, 1873, the land north of the shop was sold to J. M. & L. D. Clemence.
June 12, 1877, Charles Hyde bought the shop and land and converted the shop into a tenement house.
We have traced the growth of the optical business from the small beginning in 1833 by Wm. Beecher in an upper room of a jewelry store on Main Street to the organization of a company and the purchase of a building and water power on Cohasse Brook, lower Main Street.
On February 26, 1869, the members of these two neighboring firms, R. H. Cole, E. M. Cole and A. M. Cheney of Robert H. Cole & Co., and George W. Wells, H. C. Wells, C. S. Edmonds, of H. C. Ammidown & Co., met for the purpose of uniting in one company and chose the name “American Optical Company” because it was broad in its scope. The object defined was “to manufacture and sell spectacles and eyeglasses of gold, silver, steel and plated metals, also rings and thimbles, and such other like articles as said Company may from time to time desire to make.”
The firm was formally incorporated March 6, 1869, with R. H. Cole, President; G. W. Wells, Clerk; E. M. Cole, Treasurer; R. H. Cole, E. M. Cole, A. M. Cheney, Directors.
The capital stock, $40,000.00, was subscribed to as follows:
Robert H. Cole 150 Shares
E. Merritt Cole 80 “
Alpha M. Cheney 50 “
Hiram C. Wells 50 “
George W. Wells 40 “
Charles S. Edmonds 30 “
Total 400 “
They agreed to buy R. H. Cole his real estate situated on the southerly side of Main Street, then occupied by R. H. Cole & Co., and pay for the same $1900.00 and to purchase of R. H. Cole & Co. all machinery, tools and stock, paying not over $12,800.00; also to buy the spectacle shop of H. C. Ammidown for $3700.00, and the stock and tools of H. C. Ammidown & Co. for $4700.00.
On January 31, 1870, Hiram C. Wells and Charles S. Edmonds were added to the Directors, and on February 24, 1870, 20 shares of stock were transferred from R. H. Cole to George W. Wells. The capital stock was increased to $60,000.00 on March 7, 1871, and has remained at that figure. Henry C. Cady and Newton C. Cady became stockholders in 1873. List of officers January 1874: R. H. Cole, E. M. Cole, A. M. Cheney, H. C. Wells, G. W. Wells, Directors. R. H. Cole, President; C. S. Edmonds, Clerk, E. M. Cole, Treasurer. E. M. Cole tendered his resignation as Treasurer October 20, 1879. George W. Wells was elected Treasurer November 21, 1879 and Henry C. Cady, Director at the same date, to fill the vacancies. R. H. Cole resigned as President February 9, 1891, and George W. Wells was elected to the position and held the office of President and Treasurer until 1903, when his son, Channing M. Wells, was elected Treasurer.
Brief Sketch of Business Organization from 1869, When Located in the Old Shops, to 1872, When New Factory on Mechanic Street was Occupied
Robert H. Cole, the President, in these earlier years, attended to most of the correspondence, billing the goods and making out the orders, which was often done, owing to the limited amount of business, on scraps of paper, backs of envelopes, etc.; previous to ‘69 or ‘70 he was in the habit of looking over most of the goods as they came from the workmen, doing some work in truing and wrapping, shipping, etc. He also visited the trade occasionally to keep in touch with the wants, to learn what others were doing, and to be posted generally.
E. Merritt Cole was the Treasurer. His duties were somewhat diversified as he attended to some of the correspondence and occasionally took trips to visit the trade. He was mechanically inclined, so he often worked upon problems for shortening processes of manufacture, at times assisted in getting down the gold and silver stock, and also in making some odd styles of gold goods.
Alpha M. Cheney employed practically all of his time in melting gold and silver and getting down the stock.
Hiram C. Wells was employed constantly in making gold and silver goods.
C. S. Edmonds was employed on similar work.
George W. Wells had charge of the lower Spec Shop, so-called, in which other goods than gold were manufactured, and also had charge of setting the lenses in frames. At this time nearly all of the goods manufactured by the Company were fitted with lenses before they left the factory. There was a limited call for interchangeable lenses, which were also edged in his department.
This little shop, 30 ft. long x 24 ft. wide, two stories high, contained at one time over sixty workmen. These two floors were used for workrooms, and the basement was used for storage purposes. Underneath was a 12” turbine water wheel, which furnished power for the shop.
His experience in machine work, tool making, etc., enabled him to do quite a little in the improvement and invention of machines and methods of producing goods, which operations, at the time he learned his trade, were practically all hand work. He has since that time taken out 26 patents, and 27 others have been granted the Company up to the present time. They also own and control many patents.
He had as an assistant Newton C. Cady. Mr. Cady died in 1875, and his death was a great loss to the Company, as he gave promise of being very efficient and capable.
Henry C. Cady came to work for the Company the year it was organized, and held a position as tool and die maker.
As can well be imagined, this little shop was a hive of industry, and altogether too limited for the growing business.
Owing to the increase of business, the two shops were found inadequate for the needs, and the water power insufficient, so a new location was sought.
January 10, 1871, E. M. Cole and G. W. Wells were appointed a committee to report plans for power and site for a new shop.
March 23, 1871, it was voted to purchase of the
Central Mills Company a lot of land and water power, lying between the
“Bone Mill” and the shop of J. M. and L. D. Clemence, for $2500.00, the
water being as much as will be given by a gate 14” x 24” under 7 feet head.
It was known as:
The Royal Smith Privilege
This was a portion of the land set off October 14, 1813, from the estate of Jedediah Marcy to Joseph Marcy. It has passed through the following hands:
June 14, 1820 Jos. Marcy to Jacob Edwards
Dec. 30, 1836 Jacob Edwards to S. K. Wardwell
March 4, 1837 S. K. Wardwell to Wm. Edwards
March 20, 1837 Wm. Edwards to Royal Smith
This conveyed all of the water rights with the privilege of building canals, taking the water from the river, constructing a dam, etc.
June 22, 1838, Jedediah Marcy deeded to Royal Smith, yeoman, the privilege of building a dam across the Quinebaug River, and raising the water to a height that would not interfere with the privilege of E. D. Ammidown, (the present Central Mills Co.) above on the river and also included the right which was held by Jedediah Marcy and Samuel Hartwell obtained by a deed of assignment from Jonas Lamb February 15, 1836.
Royal Smith appears to have been the first person to improve the water power. He built a saw mill in 1837 and a grist mill in 1842.
April 23, 1844, Royal Smith gave possession under a mortgage to John Smith.
March 10, 1853, John Smith to Wm. Edwards. The land west of the present Canal, leading to the American Optical Company and lying between the canal and land of the Central Mills, also a piece of land lying easterly of the upper end of the canal on the bank of the river below the bend.
June 18, 1853, John Smith to Central Mills the remainder of the Royal Smith privilege, including the mill, rights, etc., and covering many reservations near the head of the American Optical Company’s canal.
Dec. 4, 1858, Central Mfg. Co. to Manning Leonard and Chester A. Dresser.
Dec. 4, 1858, S. M. Lane, assignee of Central Mfg. Co., to M. Leonard and C. A. Dresser, other rights now belonging to Central Mills Co.
Dec. 4, 1858, E. D. Ammidown to M. Leonard and C. A. Dresser, rights now belonging to Central Mills Co.
Feb. 16, 1863, M. Leonard and C. A. Dresser to Central Mills Co., present Central Mills privilege and property and Royal Smith privilege down to the line of the Columbian Mfg. Co.
April 11, 1871, Central Mills To. to American Optical Co., the parcel of land on which the present Main work of the Company stand, and also the right of taking water from the canal passing through said premises, for water power equivalent to an opening of 336 square inches, being the ordinary flow of the Quinebaug River under 7 ft. head measuring from the present height of the Columbian Dam as established by the indenture between the grantors and H. C. Ammidown, with the privilege of discharging the water into the Columbian Pond. Price $2500.00.
Apr. 1, 1873, Central Mills to American Optical Co., land on east side of Mechanic Street and the privilege of drawing from the canal under 7 ft. head what would pass through an aperture of 336 square inches. This tract of land and power had been leased to one Gillespie, whose rights had been purchased by American Optical Company.
Apr. 1, 1873, Central Mills to American Optical Co., the right to use water from the canal leading from the Quinebaug River to the “Royal Smith privilege” and to draw water through an opening equal to 75 square inches. (This is equivalent to what is referred to in connection with the pen stock leading to the Lower Spec Shop).
May 16, 1901, J. M. & L. D. Clemence to American Optical Co. a tract of land 25 feet wide extending along the southerly side of American Optical Co. property.
Nov. 8, 1902, Caroline Page, her property lying east of Mechanic Street and north of the so-called Plimpton property mentioned above.
Apr. 20, 1904, Onesime Dragon to American Optical Co. the Dragon property, west side of Mechanic Street.
Aug. 17, 1905, Sophie Lord, her property easterly side of Mechanic Street and south of North Street extension.
Aug. 21, 1905, L. N. Duquette, property on northerly side of East Main Street, old Morton property.
1905, property (balance) south half of Park.
Mar. 18, 1908, J. M. Dupaul, property on northerly side of East Main Street, Dupaul homestead.
July 15, 1908, Ellen J. Bartholomew deeded to representative of A.O. Co. all her real estate lying on the easterly side of the river opposite the Main Works of the American Optical Co. and a large portion of the land lying southerly and southwesterly of the Catholic cemetery.
1909, a tract of land was bought of E. T. Torrey, located on the hill east of Bartholomew purchase, about 72 acres.
Dec. 21, 1909, St. Onge property west of Mechanic Street and south of North Street, block and small house.
About Nov. 1, 1910, Amedee J. Lamoureux, Lamoureux homestead on Crystal Street.
When Robert H. Cole returned from Europe in 1872, the new factory on Mechanic Street was well under way, and he was greatly disturbed that so large a factory had been decided upon, feeling that it was impossible for the business to warrant so large a plant and outlay, and that it would not be likely to be needed for years to come; therefore, he advised selling not only some of the real estate, but a portion of the water power that had been secured, and the following property was sold:
May 10, 1873, American Optical Co. to Wm. Plimpton the land purchased under Gillespie lease (later bought back).
July 24, 1873, American Optical Co. to J. M. & L. D. Clemence the right of taking water from the canal to the amount of 128 square inches of opening and also the right of 75 square inches, being the amount of water previously drawn through the pen stock leading to the Lower Spec Shop.
May 10, 1873, Land north of Lower Spec Shop to J. M. & L. D. Clemence.
June 12, 1877, American Optical Co. sold to Charles Hyde the land upon which the Lower Spec Shop was located, with the building.
July 26, 1871, it was voted to proceed to put in foundation of the new shop and contract for the same.
October 11, 1871, a building committee, consisting of R. H. Cole, E. M. Cole and G. W. Wells, was chosen to contract for the erection of a new shop with Leonard Cutler.
This was the first of the main buildings of A.O. Co. of wood construction, excepting the basement, and the last of which was demolished in the summer of 1908 and replaced with modern factory construction. It was a three-story frame building with a finished brick basement and cost $35,000.00.
Wen the new factory was occupied in 1872 the work of the six original members of the firm was practically on the same line as in the old shops, except that Hiram C. Wells and C. S. Edmonds had charge of the Gold Department, and George W. Wells had charge of the Steel Department, which was then the largest department in the business, and included metals other than gold and silver; also had charge of the lower room, or stock department, where the metal was gotten out for the goods made in the department mentioned, tool and die making, machine shop, etc., as well as general supervision.
This condition continued practically until the business had materially grown, and other assistants were required. The appointment of H. C. Cady as Superintendent was made February 1, 1886, but long before this he performed the same duties, in having charge of the manufacturing departments, but from this time he assumed more and more of the arduous duties connected with the growing business, especially in the organizing of the rapidly growing departments, both in building of the plant and equipping the same. The Company has ever been fortunate in the loyalty of its management to each other, so that all its work has been planned and carried out as a unit, without friction of any sort.
Thus, not only the supervision of the work was directed by the members of the Company, but the detail, also. Many of the improvements have resulted from this personal and practical knowledge, as well as the design and construction of machinery especially adapted to the needs.
From the time G. W. Wells was elected Treasurer of the Company in 1879, and the burden of the business rested upon him, his time in the factory was very materially curtailed, as the office duties, visiting customers and attending to other business, kept him away from the factory and mechanical work, much to his regret. The traveling for the next fifteen years devolved exclusively on him. In the nineties he began to get valuable assistance from his sons, Channing M., Albert B. and J. Cheney Wells. Had it not been for this, he very likely would have given up the strenuous life of taking care of the rapidly growing business.
Their first traveling man, Mr. W. H. Hurlbert, was engaged in 1902, the effort in all these years being to make goods that the customers and consumers could not afford to get along without.
We can merely list the additions to the original buildings and equipment.
Mechanic Street Property
1871 and 1872 First Shop, floor space 20,700 square feet.
1876 Ice House.
1882 Mechanics Mill Property purchased.
March 1882 Addition and extension of east wing and front (Plans of Geo. W. Wells and H. C. Cady).
April 1886 South extension.
1889 New office (Demolished 1908).
Feb. 1891 Extension of east wing 35 feet north and connecting wing 27 feet west.
July 1892 New Dam $2,500.
August 1892 New building extension Machine Shop - first mill construction building. Later sheathed with brick.
1894 Power House (To be Demolished).
1897 The pitch hipped roofs of the factory as first constructed were removed and flat gravel roofs put on.
August 1898 Brick Store House - Demolished 1907.
April 1899 - 1900 Case Building and Wing.
May 1901 Gold Filled (Prindeville) South Section of factory.
May 1902 New Front south of Administration Building (Norcross Bros.).
June 1902 Extension of Machine Shop Wing (Prindeville).
1903 Machine D. Base South Extension.
May 4, 1903 Administration Building (Norcross).
1906 Addition to Gold Filled Building East and North.
1907 (300 feet Building, five stories, extending to canal). Demolished Brick Storehouse and two wings. (Built in 1898).
1908 Carpenter Shop.
1908 Steel and brick building in place of two wings taken down, the last of 1872 building. Center of Plant.
1909 2 large Storehouses for lumber and rough material.
1910 Extension to Storehouse for office for Lumber Department; and commercial business in the lumber and finish line commenced.
1888 First building.
1888 New Dam Quinebaug River, Water Wheels.
April 1895 Lens Storehouse.
August 1895 Enlarged Machine Shop.
June 1896 Raised Roof.
1900 - 1901 Brick Grinding Building with concrete floors, 285 feet x 127 feet. 2 stories.
December 1901 Engines 650 Horse Power.
May 1903 Brick Office.
February 1904 Enlarged Lens Storehouse.
August 1905 New Water Wheel.
1905 Moulding Building - first manufacture of Spectacle Lens Blanks in United States.
1907 Addition to Brick Grinding Building, 200 x 127 feet.
1907 Steel Fence.
1908 Trestle and Siding for Freight.
1909 - 1910 Cement Building, etc., 485 x 75 feet (4 stories).
1909 - 1910 Power House.
The building referred to as being erected in 1909 and 1910 is entirely of reinforced concrete, not a particle of wood being employed in the construction, and the window sash are of steel glazed with double lights of glass to each opening. This building is to be the home of the lenses after they leave the grinding factory, and here they will be inspected and those that are to be made into interchangeable lenses will be edged to standard sizes, labeled, boxed and made ready for shipment. There will also be manufacturing of particular classes of goods in this building. One of the leading causes for the erection of this building across the river was to get rid of the dust from the highway and the locomotive on the railroad, as dust is the greatest enemy of lens manufacturing.
The grounds around this factory are tastily laid out and well sodded. In the rear of the factory is a large tract of woodland, which presents the appearance of a wooded park.
Present Equipment (1910) of the Whole Plant:
Water Power 600 Horse Power
Steam Power 1200 “ “
Oil - 6 Diesel Engines 1500 “ “
3300 “ “
Electric Light, 6000 Incandescent 400 Horse Power
Floor Space 1910, 16 Acres
The Power House just completed is 145 feet long by 110 feet wide, 38 feet high, and has a chimney 188 feet high, 10 feet in diameter inside, 16 feet in largest diameter.
This Power House is entirely of reinforced concrete construction, and is built to accommodate contents approximately as follows, present and future: - 12,255 Horse Power Diesel Engines, 6-375 K. W. Generators, 30 Panel Switchboards, 35 K. W. Motor Driven Exciter, 35 K. W. Steam Driver Exciter, 2-50 Horse Power Motor Driven 3 Stage Air Compressor, 1-150 Horse Power 4 Stage Steam Driven Air Compressor, 12 Feeder Switches, 8 Generator Switches, 6-350 Horse Power Boilers, 2-1400 Horse Power Hot Water Heaters, 1-2100 Horse Power Feed Water Heater, 1-50 ton Ice Machine, 1-8” Steam Driven Centrifugal Pump, 1-8” Motor Driver Centrifugal Pump, 2-1000 gallon Fire Pumps, 1-1000 Gallon Steam Elevator Pump, 1-1000 gallon Motor Elevator Pump, 1-500 gallon Feed Water Pump.
The large subway, connecting the main factory
with the Power House, is 1500 feet long, inside diameter 10 feet wide by
8 feet high. The smaller subway, connecting the Power House with the Lensdale
Grinding Building, is 200 feet long, inside diameter 3 feet, 6 inches high
by 4 feet, 10 inches wide. These subways contain the piping for hot water
heating system, steam pipes,, cold water pipes, electric wiring, etc. The
one connecting the Power House with the main factory runs underneath the
lower floor of the new Lensdale factory, and is covered its entire length
with heavy concrete roofing.
Style of Buildings
A very notable feature which characterized the growth and extension of the A. O. Co. has been the constant study and untiring efforts of the officers of the Company to keep well ahead on modern ideas in building construction with a full realization of the importance of such a policy upon the efficiency and permanency of this industry. As a net result it is significantly shown that there has been a complete evolution wrought, and during the decade just passed the plant has been entirely rebuilt.
Bearing in mind the nature of the products handled and the special requirements thereby necessitated this problem has involved the following questions, all of which have been successfully coped with: Architectural arrangement and appearance, strength and permanency, fire prevention and isolation, natural lighting and sanitation.
The buildings erected in 1871-72 were of wood, and consisted of three stories, the basement being of brick. The main part was 45 feet square with mansard roof, and wing 65 feet long, 26 feet wide extended to the south; a wing 90 feet long and 26 feet wide extending to the east, from which another wing 45 feet long and 26 feet wide extended to the south, as shown by cut.
The construction of these buildings above the brick basement was entirely of wood, as were many of the additions up to about 1890. Previous to this, however, the outside walls of these wooden structures were filled with brick and mortar poured in from the top to insure safety from fire.
The first development which may be said to have marked the beginning in the application of the policy of progressiveness in buildings was the substitution of flat roofs covered with felt and slag for the hipped or gable roofs of slate, eliminating the objectionable attics, thereby reducing the fire hazard. This was effected in 1897.
In 1899 the first brick and timber wing now known as the north front of the Main Works, was erected. This settled the architectural design of the front elevation and marked a new era in buildings. Thenceforth the reconstruction was rapidly advanced and the pleasing appearance of the front, while settled upon eleven years ago, stands out in contrast to the architectural appearance of many industrial plants erected today. The last of the wooden buildings occupied in 1872, center of plant, were demolished in 1908.
In the manufacture of spectacles, eyeglasses, lenses and sundry lines which are characterized by their small bulk the multiple-story buildings giving a large floor area were adopted as possessing the greatest advantages and all buildings with the exception of the grinding plant are of this type.
In the matter of fire prevention and isolation for all buildings, the best structural practice has been adopted. Complete automatic sprinkler systems are installed. Fire doors shut off automatically any of the separate wings. Electric wiring is entirely enclosed within pipes. Many steel towers with wide stairways provide for the safe exit of employees. In the later types of brick and steel buildings a Z-bar construction between floors and walls would serve to isolate fires and prevent spreading from one floor to another. In the new Lensdale Building fire proof construction has been used throughout including cement floors and steel window sash (Detroit Fenestra). To supplement these precautions an elaborate system of fire pumps and apparatus is accessible at all times in case of fire. An organized watch is maintained at night and at all times when the buildings are unoccupied. Serious damage due to fire would be practically impossible.
It is interesting as an evidence of progress in considering the developments in buildings to note the advantages taken of the most modern structural practice with respect to natural lighting. In the main front the size of the windows represented the most advanced ideas on this point at the time of building. Back of the Mechanic Street structure the great wings show an interesting evolution. The use of steel floor beams permitted the narrowing of pilasters and correspondingly greater window areas. Subsequently the use of the Z-bar construction, mentioned above, permitted further extensions in window area so that in the wings recently erected the windows extend to the ceilings and a great advantage in interior illumination is gained. The new steel reinforced concrete Lensdale Building is an example of the latest and most approved ideas for factory construction. The steel sash presented new possibilities in size. These windows extend from floor to ceiling, 12 1/2 feet high, and are in some cases 21 feet long.
To insure even better illumination line shafts and belts are greatly reduced in number, in many cases machinery being driven from below the benches.
Not only do these exceptional lighting arrangements tend to increase the efficiency of employees, but they greatly reduce maintenance charges for artificial illumination. With such an extensive glazed area as found in the new Lensdale Building, however, it would be a difficult matter to heat the building in severe weather were not all windows double glazed.
The same liberal policy has governed the installation of all sanitary arrangements throughout the plant. Plumbing of the best and most modern type is used exclusively. Toilets are all placed next to outer walls, allowing direct ventilation. All buildings are kept freshly painted, insuring absolute cleanliness and sanitation. Vacuum cleaning apparatus is in constant use throughout the general offices.
In the strength and permanency of buildings the progress is notable. Naturally the earliest construction was entirely of wood. Later construction introduced brick and wood, then brick and steel, and lastly steel reinforced concrete. The necessity for this additional strength in bearing increased floor loads and permitting additional height can be readily understood.
The upper floor of the Administration Building is what might be called a “Banqueting Hall” where meetings with the Foremen or office help, or others, may be held and a banquet served. The size is 61 feet by 28 feet. There is a Library, Dining Room, Kitchen and Serving Room, where meals can be served when it is desired to entertain customers or business people who may be at the factory on business and thus save time, as well as for conference for the Management, Directors’ Meetings, etc.; in addition there is a Photographic Studio of ample size, with outfit of cameras, developing room and apparatus.
The Exhibition Room is fitted up with show cases, which are filled with samples of every line of goods manufactured by the Company. This is a very attractive and valuable room, especially when customers visit the factory, and something the Company had been planning for several years.
The American Association of Opticians came here for a visit on Aug. 22, 1902, were carefully conducted over the works and served a dinner; also the New England Opticians on May 17, 1905.
The dinners to other visitors and heads of Departments, office force, etc., have been delightful social occasions.
The exhibit by the Company at the Town Hall October 27, 1907, when all the manufacturers contributed to an Industrial Exhibit of the local industries, was large, complete and attractive.
From the early days the firm has been alert in the introduction of modern improvements and additions to the kinds of goods made. We mention some of these:
1874 Rimless goods made.
1880 Gas Machine, new.
1882 Water Supply Company’s system extended to Main Works by payment of a bonus.
1883 Lens Department established in Mechanics Mill Building.
1884 Machine for getting down “Sweeps.”
1884 Trial Frames.
1885 Dioptric System adopted.
1889 Paper Boxes.
1889 Oculists’ Test Cases.
1891 Automatic Lens Edging Machines.
1891 Water Wheel installed for power for electric light.
1891 Gold Filled Spectacles and Eyeglasses.
1892 Bundy Workmen’s Time Clocks.
1894 First Catalog.
1894 Process for grinding Cylindrical Lenses bought.
1895 Eyeglass Chains.
1897 Spectacle and Eyeglass Cases (200 hands in 1907).
1898 First Cable Tramway.
1899 Pneumatic Tubes.
1900 Weather Bureau Reports and Outfit.
1900 Electric Clocks.
1900 Tower Clock.
1903 Westinghouse Stokers.
1904 Rubber Stamps.
1905 Filter Press.
1906 Steel Fence.
1907 Gold Filled Stock.
1907 New Cable Tramway.
1907 Auto Goggles.
1907 Diesel Engine.
1907 55 Hour Week.
1909 There were 5 steel vaults, with time locks and double doors, and 14 brick vaults, in use.
1910 Exhibition Room, 78 feet by 33 feet.
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